special bolt ,high-strength bolt
Description：high-strength bolt--Mechanical analysis A screw or bolt is a specialized application of the inclined plane. The inclined plane, called its thread, is helically disposed around a cylinder or shaft.
A screw or bolt is a specialized application of the inclined plane. The inclined plane, called its thread, is helically disposed around a cylinder or shaft. That thread usually either fits into a corresponding (negative or female) helical thread in a nut, or forms a corresponding helical cut in surrounding softer material as it is inserted. A simple screw, such as for fastening, is typically pointed, and thereby is commonly distinguished (in informal terminology) from a bolt or machine screw. Common screws, and usually bolts, have a head which may be mechanically driven or rotated, which usually serves as a stop, and may have an unthreaded shoulder portion beneath the head.
The technical analysis (see also statics, dynamics) to determine the pitch, thread profile, coefficient of friction (static and dynamic), and holding power of a screw or bolt is very similar to that performed to predict wedge behavior. Wedges are discussed in the article on simple machines.
Critical applications of screws and bolts will specify a torque that must be applied when driving it. The main concept is to tension the bolt, and compress parts being held together, creating a spring-like assembly. The stress thus introduced to the bolt is called a preload. When external forces try to separate the parts, the bolt experiences no strain unless the preload force is exceeded.
As long as the preload is never exceeded, the bolt or nut will never come loose (assuming the full strength of the bolt is used). If the full strength of the bolt is not used (for example, a steel bolt threaded into aluminium, then a thread-locking adhesive or insert may be used.
If the preload is exceeded during normal use, the joint will eventually fail. The preload is calculated as a percentage of the bolt's yield tensile strength, or the strength of the threads it goes into, or the compressive strength of the clamped layers (plates, washers, gaskets), whichever is least.